CyberCriminology – Albright College


Combine the study of computer science with the study of sociology and society, through a major in CyberCriminology at Albright College.

How might technology be misused for criminal activity and how can it be used to address criminal behavior? Gain insight through this intersecting study of sociology and computers. Sociology is used to analyze and explain the most challenging issues of our time. Be ready for a future of ever-changing computer hardware and software by studying the principles that future computer programs will be built upon.

1. Fostering intellectual curiosity.

2. Breaking free from the leash of cultural conformity by learning to think critically and creatively about issues for themselves without relying on others (authorities) to make the assessments for them.

3. Finding, understanding and critically assessing scholarly and analytic bodies of sociological literature.

4. Developing the skills and knowledge to conduct basic sociological investigations.

5. Developing a foundation of sociological theory about the way humans interact with the social and physical world such that they can use them to understand and assess a variety of human actions around the world.

6. Practicing the skill of connecting social observations with theory so that theories can be used by graduates throughout their lives to develop sophisticated assessments about the causes and effects of human actions.

7. Writing and speaking clearly and fluently while also incorporating the sociological and computer science knowledge that they have gained in their coursework.

8. Achieving breadth of knowledge across sociological substantive areas and depth within one area.

9. Prepare for apprentice-level positions or graduate study in system software design, development, implementation and maintenance

SOC Requirements:
SOC 101 Introduction to Sociology
(fulfills General Studies Foundations Social Science requirement)
SOC 202 The Criminal Justice System
SOC 210 Research Methods
SOC 211 Statistics (fulfills General Studies Foundations Quantitative Reasoning requirement)
SOC 213 Social Theory
SOC 490 Senior Seminar

Specialized Criminology Requirements:
SOC 202 The Criminal Justice System
SOC 251 Crime and Deviance

Any one of the following:
– SOC 253 Criminal Investigation and SOC 254 Advanced Criminal Investigation (must take both courses)
– ANT 310 Crime, Culture and Conflict Resolution
– SOC 302 Juvenile Delinquency
– SOC 305 Terrorism
– SOC 307 Organized Crime
– SOC 311 Domestic Violence
– SOC 360 Crime & the Media
– SOC 383 Race and the School to Prison Pipeline
– SOC 385 Violence & Victims

Any one of the following:
– SOC 440 Ethnographies in Crime
– SOC 450 White Collar Crime
– SOC 460 Serial Murder

CSS Requirements:
CSC 141 Foundations of Computer Science I
CSC 142 Foundations of Computer Science II
CSC 210 Algorithm Design and Analysis
CSC 220 Discrete Structures and Computing Paradigms
CSC 310 Computer Architecture and Organization
CSC 490 Senior Seminar

One additional 300 or 400 level CSC course

Sociology Courses

SOC 101
Introduction to Sociology
A general study, emphasizing the concepts and methodologies through which the sociologist investigates the nature of the social structure and the social processes related to individual behavior. General Studies Foundations-Social Science

SOC 202
The Criminal Justice System
This class allows students to examine a broad array of topics related to the criminal justice system in America. A number of guest speakers who are working in various positions in the system will be invited to describe and discuss their work and areas of expertise. Students are encouraged to think critically about public safety questions and focus on issues, complexities and policies of the criminal justice system, while demonstrating the inter-relationships of the system’s components. Students will also be expected to complete a research paper on one area of interest.

SOC 210
Research Methods
An exploration of the application of the basic tenets of scientific research to social science topics. Topics investigated include the formalization of research topics, the isolation and operationalization of theoretical concepts, the construction of hypotheses, sampling theory and alternative means for selection, study design selection and evaluation, data collection techniques, the organization of empirical data for hypothesis testing.

SOC 211
An introduction to the theory and practice of basic statistical analysis. Topics considered include the organization and tabulation of raw and grouped data, graphical presentation of univariate and multivariate distributions, central tendency and variability measures, elementary probability theory with binomial applications, the theory of sampling and the central limit theorem, one and two sample tests of hypotheses concerning means and proportions, the analysis of variance and regression. Satisfies general studies quantitative reasoning requirement.

SOC 213
Development of Social Theory
An exploration of the evolution of social thought leading to the systematic and scientific basis of modern sociology.

SOC 251
Crime and Deviance
An introduction to the sociology of deviance as it relates to criminal behavior. An analysis of crime and delinquency, as well as the cultural implications of conformity and deviance in society, are the major topics of the course. Sociocultural definitions of deviance and conformity are investigated as they relate to their causes, prevalence and sanctioning.

SOC 253
Criminal Investigation
This course is designed to provide students with the basic theoretical and philosophical understanding of the investigatory process. The course covers the fundamentals of criminal investigation and teaches the skills and knowledge necessary to conduct thorough preliminary investigations of crime. Crime scene search and recording, collection and preservation of physical evidence and scientific aids are studied. Analysis of problems encountered in interviewing, interrogating, evidence collection, and admissibility are examined. Sources of information, follow-up and case presentation are addressed. Application of investigative theories to the administration of justice is also examined.
Prerequisite: SOC 101, SOC 251

SOC 254
Advanced Criminal Investigation
This course is designed to provide students with a detailed understanding of the scientific methods and instrumentation used in processing crime scenes and physical evidence collected during a criminal investigation. Topics include fingerprints, cast and mold development, blood and other body fluids, hair, fibers, tool marks, paint, glass and plastic fragments, ballistics and specialized instrumentation. Practical exercises will supplement lecture to provide students with a better understanding of the techniques discussed in class.
Prerequisite: SOC 101, SOC 253

SOC 302
Juvenile Delinquency
Patterns of juvenile delinquency are examined within the framework of the social definition of the adolescent years in American society and the response of the criminal justice system to behavior which society has deemed deviant. Within this framework the course focuses on the conflicting expectations and opportunities available to youth in American society; the operation of the juvenile justice system including the formal and informal processing of those whose age-specific behavior is defined as “delinquent”; the patterns and trends in delinquent behavior; the major theoretical perspectives used to account for and explain juvenile delinquency; and the range of options society has to control, punish, reward or treat those who exhibit delinquent behavior.
Prerequisite: SOC 101, sophomore standing or above

SOC 305
This course examines the concept of terrorism through a comprehensive overview of the many disciplines the subject crosses. Various positions on issues of controversy, fear and prevention are examined. Illustrations of cultural, historical, tactical factors, and social causes of some of the major forms of terrorism are addressed. An integrated approach to the subject includes domestic and international issues as well as the importance of security techniques and intelligence gathering. Case studies of terrorist groups and their activities are presented.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or above

SOC 307
Organized Crime
This course examines criminal activities carried out through criminal organizations and focuses on organized crime as it related to cultural history, assimilation processes and the characteristics of American society, which have fostered its growth and success. Trends in organized crime in terms of ethnicity, structure and activities are investigated. Law enforcement strategies and tactics used to control organized crime are also examined. (Cross-listed as LAS 307).
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or above

SOC 311
Domestic Violence
The definition, characteristics and nature of domestic violence are explored, with particular emphasis on the various forms of violence that take place within the familial context such as abuse of spouses, children and the elderly. The perspectives of both the victims and those who batter them are addressed through case studies. Prevention strategies, treatment techniques and the role of law enforcement are also explored.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or above

Crime and the Media
From CSI to Law & Order to Chucky and the evening news, Americans are saturated with images of crime and deviance. This course explores the causes and consequences of our fascination with this genre. With foundations in both sociology and communication studies, this course addresses such questions as: Why are people fascinated with images of crime? Does exposure to such media affect propensity to commit crime, and, if so, what kind of depictions are the most influential? Can influences result from material that isn’t even explicitly crime-related (e.g. cartoons or sexualized material)? Since most people experience “virtual crime” daily but rarely if ever experience serious crime first hand, how might the media shape or distort our perception of crime and how might this in turn shape our civil society? Finally, how do media effects shape the criminal justice system itself? In addition to traditional study, this discussion-based course will ask students to view and analyze samples of contemporary crime based media. Students should come prepared to be exposed to some graphic violent or sexually themed material for the purposes of academic study. Multiple forms of media will be addressed including print, dramas, cartoons, movies, news and web-based communications.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or above

SOC 385
Violence and Victims
This course focuses on the socio-cultural basis for violence in American society and for others throughout the world. Using a global perspective, this course addresses a variety of types of violence, its causes and its consequences. Topics addressed include street violence, gang warfare, hate crimes, serial murder and gender specific crimes. The theoretical basis of the causes of violence is also examined. The consequences of violence for both individual victims and society as a whole are explored.
Prerequisite: SOC 101, sophomore standing or above

SOC 440
Ethnographies in Crime and Deviance
Ethnography is a type of research by which an investigator, overtly or covertly, participates in the lives of his or her research subjects over an extended period of time. This participation is accompanied by the use of a trained scholar’s skills to observe what happens, listen to what is said, and, occasionally, pose questions or conduct interviews. Quality ethnography makes a reader feel as if he/she personally knows the people and places described. Students in this course are asked to complete their own small ethnographic projects, but the bulk of this seminar-style course is devoted to the study of significant works in ethnographies of criminal or deviant populations. Hence, students will read and discuss studies in which researchers live with, interview and otherwise share their lives with such individuals as drug dealers, muggers, crack addicts, rapists, prison guards, and their respective families and acquaintances. Through intimate exposure to the personal thoughts and lives of deviants and law enforcement personnel, an understanding is gained that goes beyond the abstractions of theory or remoteness of statistical analyses.
Prerequisite: Junior standing or above, SOC 251, all other core courses below the 400 level (SOC 101, SOC 210, SOC 211, SOC 213), and one additional 300 level SOC or ANT course.

SOC 450
White Collar Crime/Elite Deviance
Elite deviance constitutes a major social problem for American society, and much of the world as well. This course introduces students to the concept of elite deviance and the variety of cultural, political and social situations that foment it. The course focuses on the global nature of elite deviance and examines its corporate, political and occupational dimensions. Both policy and regulatory issues in government and business are also examined relative to major theoretical positions.
Prerequisite: Junior standing or above, SOC 251, all other core courses below the 400 level (SOC 101, SOC 210, SOC 211, SOC 213), and one additional 300 level SOC or ANT course.

SOC 460
Serial Murder/Criminal Profiling
This course is designed to be a scholarly, comprehensive, empirical examination of the phenomenon known as serial murder. Content will include, but is not limited to, psychological, sociological, biological and familial influences, and individual case studies. Serial murder will be distinguished from other forms of multiple homicides. The many problems associated with addressing serial murder will be considered. Other topics that will be covered include serial murder and its relation to race and gender, the many myths associated with serial murder, and the role of the media and law enforcement officials. Particular emphasis will be placed upon the difficulties in apprehension of serial killers. A major course component is an applied exercise where students in small groups create, investigate and apply profiling techniques relating to this phenomenon.
Prerequisite: Junior standing or above, SOC 251, all other core courses below the 400 level (SOC 101, SOC 210, SOC 211, SOC 213), and one additional 300 level SOC or ANT course.

SOC 490
Senior Seminar in Sociology
An advanced research seminar that focuses on conducting a hypothesis-testing empirical research project on a topic of interest to the student. Building on the content of SOC 210 Research Methods, this course concentrates on the collection and analysis of social science data and culminates in the writing of the senior thesis.
Prerequisite: Senior standing, all other core courses (SOC 101, SOC 210, SOC 211, SOC 213), and at one additional 300 level SOC or ANT course.


Anthropology Course

ANT 310
Crime, Culture and Conflict Resolution
This course introduces students to the “law ways” of different societies, in particular non-industrialized societies. The goal is to explore the extent to which different societies employ coercion, punishment and consensus in order to maintain order and resolve conflicts. Topics include rules and crime, the cultural basis of right and wrong, informal and ritualized disputing, conflict theory and conflict resolution (avoidance, community action, ritual reconciliation, negotiation and mediation), oaths, ordeals, and punishment, adjudication and codified law, feuding, raiding and warfare (internal and external).

Computer Science Courses

CSC 119
Introduction to Programming
This course includes elements of programming in C, C++, JAVA or some other high-level language; practical experience solving problems; coding and executing programs. It does not fulfill the computer science concentration requirements.
Prerequisite: permission required for non-computer science majors

CSC 141
Foundations of Computer Science I
This is an introduction to problem-solving methods and algorithm development using object-oriented methodology and JAVA. The objective is to teach how to design, code, debug and document programs using techniques of good programming style. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory per week.

CSC 142
Foundations of Computer Science II
This course continues the development of discipline in program design, style and expression. It focuses on debugging and testing; and introduces algorithmic analysis and basic aspects of recursion and simple data structures. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory per week.
Prerequisite: Successful completion of CSC 141 or permission of the department

CSC 213
Assembly Language and Computer Organization
This course provides basic concepts of computer systems; introduces computer architecture; teaches an assembly language; and introduces the organization and structuring of the major hardware components of computers. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory per week.
Prerequisite: CSC 141

CSC 305
Data Structures and Algorithms
Analysis of data structures and algorithms for their manipulation are studied, along with comparative efficiency of searching and sorting algorithms. The course applies analysis and design techniques to non-numeric algorithms, which act on data structures. Topics include lists, stacks, queues, recursion, searching and sorting, binary trees, and graphs.
Prerequisite: CSC 142

CSC 306
Operating Systems
Topics in this course include: structure and implementation of multiprogrammed and time-shared computer systems; sequential, interacting and sharing processes; memory management; synchronization; protection; virtual memory; monitors; kernels; and networks of operating systems modules.
Prerequisites: CSC 213 and CSC 305

CSC 307
Software Engineering
This course examines axiomatic bases of program and system design. Students gain laboratory experience designing systems software and are introduced to state-of-the-art software for designing structured systems. Three hours lecture and three hours laboratory per week.
Prerequisite: CSC 305 or permission of the department

CSC 311
Gaming Physics & Mathematics
The objective of this course is to present applications of mathematics and physics in game and simulation programming. The course includes utilization of matrix and vector operations, along with Newtonian principles in games and simulations. Starting with an overview of the rendering pipeline in OpenGL, the student will study vectors, matrices, linear transformations, and geometry for 3D engines. The course will dovetail into a more complete understanding of linear algebra topics that will be covered in the CSC372 Computer Graphics course.
Prerequisite: CSC 305 or permission of the department

CSC 372
Computer Graphics
This course is designed to provide those principles which will enable the student to design, use and understand graphics systems. It is assumed that the student has no prior background in computer graphics, but is familiar with fundamental mathematical concepts which will be necessary for the development of this course. Students should have coding experience in either C, C++, or Java. Topics will include: line drawing algorithms, menus and panel constructions, polygons, two-dimensional transformations, windowing and clipping, three-dimensioning, and, possibly, texture mapping. Prerequisite: CSC 305

CSC 382
Computer Science Internship
Students will apply computer science theory in a business, institution or government agency under the supervision of an on-site staff member and a faculty sponsor. Reports and computer science projects are required. This course does not fulfill CSC concentration requirements. Students must obtain sponsorship and apply to the computer science faculty no later than the first day of the last month of the semester preceding the expected internship. Quality/Nonquality only.
Prerequisite: Permission of computer science faculty

CSC 385
Handheld Wireless Technology
This course introduces the underlying concepts of wireless technology and its particular use with handheld devices. Operating system principles are discussed in relation to the environment of the Palm PDA. Coding and application development are essential components of this course. Students work in the C and JAVA programming environments and learn how to interface Palm devices with Unix and Windows platforms.

CSC 391
Advanced Topics in Computer Science
A different topic is presented each semester. These topics include mobile programming, object-oriented methodologies, expert systems, artificial intelligence, advanced graphics concepts, database management, wireless research, algorithm analysis. It is designed to provide the serious student with a challenging course on a topic that might not usually be developed at the elementary or intermediate levels. The instructor provides a syllabus discussing the topics to be covered in the semester prior to the actual offering of the course. Prerequisite: Changes based on topic

CSC 491
The seminar includes assigned readings, projects and lectures in areas of special interest. These areas include: client/server (networking for games), artifical intelligence, automata theory, computability, formal languages, compiler writing, image processing and advanced UNIX concepts. Material in these courses should be current and topical. The seminars present a strong challenge to the student. May be repeated with new topic. Prerequisite: Changes based on topic

Wireless Technologies

The Computer Science Department’s Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) curriculum is a comprehensive program for higher education students interested in learning wireless technologies.

Today’s computing is done on handheld computers. Academically, students need to be educated in the latest technologies that reflect current business and consumer trends. Nationally, there exists a need for IT and IT-related professionals to become proficient in handheld wireless technologies, as it is one of the fastest growing fields in IT today. The possibilities of these small devices are only limited by the imagination of the user.

To this end, the department has established two wireless research labs. These labs house Sun ULTRA 10 workstations and DELL Pentium computers and are reserved for research and application development for such things as mobile devices, smartphones and Palm OS-based handhelds.


Albright’s academic computing facilities include Sun ULTRA 80 file server with Sun ULTRA 10 and ULTRA 5 workstations for student use. These computers may be accessed through the computer science lab located in the Center for Computing and Mathematics. Additional access is provided via internet connections for students living in the residence halls and off-campus. Many language processors, such as C, C++, JAVA, Visual Basic and Python are available on the system for student use.